A literature review and survey data from 4015 adults across Germany, France, Spain and the UK shows ‘high levels of hesitancy and multiple forms of mistrust’ of immunisation.
A systematic review of the relevant literature in English on the cost-effectiveness of immunisation for adults aged 50 years or over in all EU Member States was performed for the SAATI report (see below). Cost-effectiveness studies were found for 13 EU Member States (the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain, Poland, Denmark, Finland, Slovakia and Czech Republic) and for 4 of the seven key vaccine preventable diseases examined in this report: herpes zoster, seasonal influenza, IPD and pneumococcal pneumonia.
Vaccines prevent up to 3 million deaths worldwide each year [Ehreth 2005]. The clinical (i.e. health) benefits of immunisation are clear. Vaccination success stories are well documented. Vaccines are widely regarded as an effective tool for improving health, and children in all countries are routinely immunised against major diseases [Bloom 2005].
Tetanus is a sporadic and relatively uncommon infection in Europe. The confirmed case rate remains low, mainly because laboratory confirmation is usually not performed for tetanus and diagnosis is based on clinical presentation.
Diphtheria is a life-threatening infection of the upper respiratory tract caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria. It also affects internal organs and/or the skin.In Europe, both diphtheria and tetanus are rare infections due to universal childhood vaccination and regular boosters [ECDC 2013].
Public Health England issue new algorithm for individuals with uncertain or incomplete immunisation status
Herpes zoster is a serious disease in older people and in the immunocompromised. In the absence of antiviral therapy, up to 45% of patients over 60 years of age experience considerable pain for 6–12 months [Scott et al, 2006; Wareham and Breuer 2007], severely affecting their quality of life [Drolet 2010].
The global incidence of pertussis is estimated at 48.5 million cases a year with 295,000 deaths [Mattoo 2005]. In the US, pertussis has the greatest incidence and mortality of all vaccine-preventable diseases [Roush 2007].